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[Introduction] [The Map of Nigeria]  [The Anthem] [The Pledge]  [The Flag] [Coat of Arms]
Facts:- [Country]  [Geography]   [People]

 Nigerian arts


Nigeria! A giant on the continent of Africa populated with 100 million people, one-fifth of the entire African population.

Nigeria's population is a mix of over 250 tribes and the former three regions of the East, West, North, has abundant human and mineral resources.

Main resources, include palm oil, rubber from the East; groundnuts, hides and skin from the North, Cocoa from the West.

Nigeria's main export product is oil, and it has a daily production of two million barrels, as well as over 160 trillion cubic meters of gas.
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The new National Anthem, was adopted on October 1, 1978. The music was composed by Mr. Ben Odiase, Director of Music of the Nigerian Police band.

Arise, O' Compatriots, Nigeria's call obey
To serve our fatherland
With love and strength and faith
The labour of our heroes past
Shall never be in vain
To serve with heart and might
One nation bound in freedom, peace and unity.

Oh God of Creation, direct our noble cause;
Guide our leaders right;
Help our Youth the truth to know
In love and honesty to grow
And living just and true
Great lofty heights attain
To build a Nation where peace and justice shall reign.
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I pledge to Nigeria, my country,
To be faithful, loyal and honest,
To serve Nigeria with all my strength,
To defend her unity and uphold
Her honour and glory
So help me God.
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The Nigerian National Flag is divided vertically into three equal parts. The central part is white, symbolizing peace and unity, and the two outer parts which are green, symbolize the nation's vast agricultural wealth.
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The Nigerian Coat-of-Arms features an eagle mounted on a black shield, which is tri-sected by two silver wavy bands.

Two white chargers support the shield, and at its base is a wreath of cactus spectabilis flowers, cast in the national colors of white and green.

The black shield represents the fertile soil while the silvery bands denote the Niger and Benue rivers which form the main inland waterways in the country.

The cactus spectabilis is a colourful flower which grows wildly in Nigeria. The eagle stands for strength and the chargers symbolize dignity.
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Formal Name: Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Short Form: Nigeria.
Term for Nationals: Nigerian(s).
Nationality: noun: Nigerian(s) adjective: Nigerian
Capital: Abuja Federal Capital Territory
Date of Independence: October 1, 1960.
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Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Africa
total: 923,770 sq km
land: 910,770 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Land boundaries:slightly more than twice the size of California
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 30 nm

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources: petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 44%
forests and woodland: 12%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,570 sq km (1993 est.)

Boundaries: Southern limits set by Gulf of Guinea (bights of Benin and Biafra); inland frontiers shared with Cameroon (east), Chad (northeast), Niger (north), and Benin (west). No demarcation reached regarding Nigeria-Chad-Niger- Cameroon boundary in Lake Chad, leading to disputes.

Topography: Five major geographic divisions: low coastal zone along Gulf of Guinea; succeeded northward by hills and low plateaus; Niger-Benue river valley; broad stepped plateau stretching to northern border with highest elevations over 1,200 meters; mountainous zone along eastern border, which includes country's highest point (2,042 meters).

Climate: Tropical with variations governed by interaction of moist southwest monsoon and dry northeast winds. Mean maximum temperatures of 30-32șC (south), 33-35șC (north). High humidity in south February-November, June-September in north; low humidity during dry season. Annual rainfall decreases northward; about 2,000 millimeters in coastal zone (Niger Delta averages over 3,550 millimeters); 500 to 750 millimeters in north.

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment-current issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation; desertification; recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities

Environment-international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection.
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Population: 113,828,587 (July 1999 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 25,613,974; female 25,397,166)
15-64 years: 52% (male 30,272,539; female 29,197,611)
65 years and over: 3% (male 1,678,732; female 1,668,565) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.92% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 41.84 births/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 12.98 deaths/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1999 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 69.46 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.3 years
male: 52.55 years
female: 54.06 years (1999 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.02 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Ethnic Groups: 250 to 400 or more recognized groups, many divided into subgroups of considerable social and political importance. Most important ethnolinguistic categories: Hausa and Fulani in north, Yoruba in southwest, and Igbo in southeast, all internally subdivided. Next major groups: Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv, and Ijaw.

Religion: In last officially accepted census (1963), about 47 percent of population self-identified as Muslims (chiefly adherents of Sunni Islam), nearly 35 percent as Christians, and more than 18 percent as other (almost entirely adherents of indigenous religions). Majority of north Muslim; south mainly non-Muslim, primarily Christian; middle belt mixed faiths. Mission-related Christian churches (Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, and others), African independent churches, and Aladura Church present.

Languages: Number of languages estimated at 350 to 400, many with dialects. Most important: Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo. Hausa major language in north. English official language used in government, large-scale business, mass media, and education beyond primary school. Several other languages also recognized for primary education. Classical Arabic of religious significance in north.

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.1%
male: 67.3%
female: 47.3% (1995 est.)

Education: Universal primary education (six-year program) responsibility of state and local governments. Great increase in enrollments (about 12 million in government primary schools, additional millions in Muslim and Christian private schools in 1985). Responsibility for secondary education shared by federal and state governments; also some private schools; 3.7 million in government secondary schools in 1985. In 1990 between 150,000 and 200,000 in thirty-five colleges, universities, and higher technical schools.

Health: Major prevalent diseases included cerebrospinal meningitis, yellow fever, Lassa fever, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), malaria, guinea worm, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and malnutrition among young children. Medical establishments owned by federal, state, and local governments and private groups. Shortage of medical facilities and physicians in rural areas. Primary Health Care Plan launched in late 1980s, including expanded immunization campaign.

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May 18, 2004
Visit Marcus Garvey Library
Visit American Experience: Marcus Garvey: Look For Me in the Whirlwind
Visit MarcusGarvey.com

May 18, 2004
Updated The 12th Annual Marcus Garvey Celebration

May 8, 2003
Updated Press Release Section